The World of Achaemenid Persia

Conference - Biogs Full

29 September - 1 October 2005
Clore Education Centre, British Museum, Great Russell Street, London WC1B 3DG

Over 50 speakers will discuss the Achaemenid dynasty. The focus of discussions will be history/historiography, new sources, art & architecture, gender, political continuity/change, iconography, religion, origins & legacy.

Kamyar Abdi

Kamyar Abdi received his BA in Archaeology from Tehran University (1992) and his MA from the University of Chicago in Near Eastern Languages and Civilisations (1997). He received his PhD from the University of Michigan in Anthropology (2002). He has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College since 2002. His research interests focus on the social and economic developments in the intervening era from the beginning of sedentary life and food production in the Early Neolithic period (c. 8000 BC) to the rise of early political formations in the Late Chalcolithic period (c. 3500 BC). The organisation and operation of imperial formations from the 3rd millennium BC to the rise of Islam in the 7th century AD and the nature and mechanism of interaction between people of different ethnic backgrounds in the Achaemenid Empire (550-330 BC). Dr Abdi has done field work in Iran, Turkey, and the USA. As part of the Fars Archaeology Project, a long-term, regional programme to explore the development of early societies in southern Zagros, he recently resumed excavations at the site of Malyan (ancient Anshan), the highland capital of Elam. His publications include: Yeki Bud, Yeki Nabud: Essays on Iranian Archaeology in Honour of William M Sumner co-edited with Naomi F Miller (2003), 'Capitals of the Achaemenid Empire' in Capitals of Iran: Ancient and Modern M Y Kiani (ed) (1996), 'Bes in the Achaemenid Empire' in Ars Orientalis (1999), 'Nationalism, Politics, and the Development of Archaeology in Iran' in American Journal of Archaeology (2001), 'Malyan 1999' in Iran (2001), 'Notes on Iranianization of Bes in the Achaemenid Empire' in Ars Orientalis (2002), 'The Early Development of Pastoralism in the Central Zagros Mountains' in Journal of World Prehistory (2003) and 'The Daiva Inscription Revisited' in International Journal of Ancient Iranian Studies (2005).

Bahram Adjerloo

Bahram Adjerloo is a PhD candidate in Archaeology at the University on Tehran where he has also earned his BA (1998) and MA (2001) in archaeology. He is a member of the academic staff at the Art, Architecture & Urbanism Research Centre, Department of Art History of the Nazar Institute since 2001 and Chief Editor of New Historical Studies (a professional quarterly) since 2004. He is a member of the editorial board at Bagh-i-Nazar, the professional journal of the Nazar Institute since 2003. Mr Adjerloo is also a member of the authors-council of the Parsi Encyclopedia of the Danesh Gostar Cultural Institute (Archaeology & Ancient Iran Sector) since 2004, and Lecturer in Art History at Islamic Azad University since 2004. His publications include 'Anthropology & Palaeoanthropology' in Theoretical Archaeology, Shahram Zarea (ed) (2000), 'Iwan of Tabriz' in Archaeognosy (2002), 'Archaeology & Historiography: Objectives, Challenges & Interactions' in Proceedings of 2nd Congress of Iranian Young Archaeologists (2003), 'An Introduction to the Formation of Social Archaeology' in Archaeognosy (2004), 'The Recognition of the Ark of Alishah in Tabriz and its Main Function' in Fine Arts: Journal of the Faculty of Fine Arts of Tehran University (2003), 'An Introduction to the Development of Kura - Araxes Culture in the Qazvin Plain through 4th Millennium BC' in Proceedings of International Congress on the North Western Iranian Plateau (2004) and 'Art of Kura - Araxes' in Message of Archaeologist: Archaeological Journal of Islamic Azad University (2005). All the above publications are in Persian. Titles and names of publications are shown above in English translation.

Kourosh Afhami

Kourosh Afhami is an architect and co-founder of the Persepolis3D project, which is currently creating a virtual reconstruction of Persepolis. In 1993, he received a Diplom Ingenieur in Architecture from the Fachhochschule in Trier, Germany. As a student, his concentration was on design and planning, town planning, theory of architecture, as well as the history of Iranian architecture. In 2001, his life-long studies and interest in the architecture and history of Persepolis led him to the development of the Persepolis3D project in partnership with Wolfgang Gambke. He has worked on numerous competitions and projects in various architectural firms as designer and planner, including, but not limited to, the offices of Professor Gottfried Boehm in Cologne and Chapman Taylor in Duesseldorf. Examples of his work noted in industry publications include: Co-developer of concept for interior architecture, 'The November Pogrom 1938' exhibition, Historical Museum of Vienna, 1988 exhibition brochure; Architekten - Monographie Hermann & Valentiny (1991); 'City Cultural Hall in Worms' in Wettbewerbe Aktuell Magazin (1991); 'Pic & Cloppenburg Building in Berlin' in Baumeister Magazine (1995). Mr Afhami and his partner are currently co-producing a documentary film in partnership with the German Television Hessischer Rundfunk regarding Persepolis and its reconstruction.

Bjoern Anderson

Bjoern Anderson did his undergraduate studies at the University of Oregon, after which he attended the University of British Columbia and received an MA in Classical Archaeology. In 1999, he began the University of Michigan's doctoral program in the Interdepartmental Program in Classical Art & Archaeology. His dissertation, exploring cultural identity in the kingdom of Nabataea, was completed in May 2005. The title is 'Constructing Nabataea: Identity, Ideology, and Connectivity'. Dr. Anderson's primary interest is in how the dialogue between different cultural traditions shapes the construction of ideologies and identities. He pursues this research through contextual analysis of texts, material, and visual culture from a wide range of settings. Secondary interests include the archaeology and history of Arabia during the span between the Achaemenid and Roman Empires, classical texts engaging the Near East, and spatial/environmental analysis. His publications include: 'Nabataean Kingship Ideology During the Reign of Aretas IV', in Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Nabataean Studies; November 4-6, 2002 (forthcoming) and 'Imperial Legacies, Local Identities: References to Royal Achaemenid Iconography on Crenelated Nabataean Tombs', in Medes and Persians: Elusive Contexts of Elusive Empires - Ars Orientalis (2002). Dr Anderson is currently teaching at the University of Michigan.

Alireza Asgari-Chaverdi

Alireza Asgari-Chaverdi completed his BA and MA degrees in Archaeology at Tehran University. His MA thesis presented a detailed survey of the settlement of the Lamerd Region, with particular attention being focused on the Post-Achaemenid site of Tomb-e Bot. Mr Asgari-Chaverdi is currently the senior archaeologist at the Shiraz office of the ICHTO. His publications include 'Recent Post-Achaemenid Finds from Southern Fars, Iran' in Iran (2002).

Barbara Regine Armbruster

Barbara Armbuster is both an archaeologist and a trained goldsmith, and is currently a research fellow at the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique of Toulouse University. Her field of research covers the history of technology of precious metals and copper alloys from the Early Bronze Age until the Early Medieval periods in Europe and Eurasia. Her interdisciplinary approach includes archaeological, experimental, ethnological and iconographic studies as well as archaeometallurgical data collection and analysis. Her publications include Do Calcolítico à Idade do Bronze with R Parreira (1993), 'Cambio Tecnológico y Contacto Entre Atlántico y Mediterráneo: El Depósito de El Carambolo' with A Perea in Trabajos de Prehistoria (1998), Goldschmiedekunst und Bronzetechnik. Studien zum Metallhandwerk der Atlantischen Bronzezeit auf der Iberischen Halbinsel (2000), 'Le Torque. Remarques sur la Technique de Fabrication. Relations Entre l'Orfèvrerie du Domaine Hallstattien Occidental et l'Orfèvrerie de la Péninsule Ibérique au Bronze Final et au Premier Age du Fer' in C Rolley (ed.) La Tombe Princière de Vix (2003), 'Le Tournage dans l'Orfèvrerie de l'Age du Bronze et du Premier Age du Fer en Europe Atlantique' in M Feugère and J C Gérold (eds.) Le Tournage des Origines à l'An Mil. Actes du Colloque de Niederbronn, Octobre 2003 (2005) and Early Scythian Goldworking from the Burial Arzhan 2 (forthcoming).

Heather D Baker

After graduating in Archaeology from the University of Cambridge Dr Baker participated in numerous excavations in Britain, Cyprus, Jordan, Turkey and especially in Iraq. At the University of Oxford she gained an MPhil in Cuneiform Studies and a DPhil in Assyriology. As a graduate student she held positions at the British Museum and The Lexicon of Greek Personal Names at Oxford. Between January 1999 and December 2002 she was a Research Associate of the State Archives of Assyria Project at the University of Helsinki. She has been Editor-in-Charge of The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire for the SAA Project from July 1999 on. Since January 2003 she has been working as a Researcher with the START Project on 'The Economic History of Babylonia in the 1st millennium BC' at the University of Vienna. Her publications include a monograph, The Archive of the Nappahu Family (2004); (as editor) The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Part 2/I (2000), Part 2/II (2001), Part 3/I (2002); and with M Jursa Approaching the Babylonian Economy (2005). Her research interests are in the social and economic history and material culture of Babylonia and Assyria in the 1st millennium BC. She is currently working on a monograph on 'The Urban Landscape in First Millennium BC Babylonia'.

Goetz Balonier

Goetz Balonier is author and director of documentary films for Hessischer Rundfunk (German TV, ARD). Examples of his films include: Transasia (10 documentary films on Asian countries); Ein Gerechter unter den Voelkern (a documentary celebrating the work of Dutch lawyer Hans Calmeyer in The Netherlands during the German occupation); Die Entdeckung der Nordwestpassage (6 documentary films on numerous attempts to make shorter voyages through the Arctic to Asia); and the latest film Persepolis - Rekonstruktion einer Weltstadt, a preliminary version of which will be screened at the conference.

Oric Basirov

Oric Basirov read Old and Middle Iranian languages (Avestan, Old Persian, Parthian, Manichaean Middle Persian and Pahlavi) at SOAS, University of London. He later obtained a BA in Art & Archaeology at SOAS, reading Zoroastrian Doctrine & History, Archaeology and Modern Iranian languages (Classical Persian and Kurdish). Later, also at SOAS, he gained a PhD for his thesis on the Evolution of the Zoroastrian Funerary Cult in Western Iran covering modern Iran, Mesopotamia and the western satrapies. He was appointed as a Research Associate at the Department of Art & Archaeology, SOAS, and as a specialist in Zoroastrian funerary remains and iconography at the Achaemenid excavations at Dascylium, western Turkey. He has been continuously involved in the research and survey of the Achaemenid funerary monuments in western Asia Minor. He is a founding member of the Society for Iranian Oral Studies and the Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies, both at SOAS. He has lectured extensively at SOAS, and occasionally at Cambridge, Melbourne and Sydney universities. His publications include ´Achaemenid Anatolia´ in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Anatolia in the Achaemenid Period (2001), ´Evolution of Zoroastrian Iconography and Temple Culture´ in Ancient Near Eastern Studies (2001) as well as numerous articles published on the website.

Pierre Briant

Pierre Briant is Professor of History and Civilisation of the Achaemenid World and the Empire of Alexander the Great at the Collège de France since 1999, Director of the Réseau International d'Études et de Recherches Achéménides (Groupement de recherches du CNRS), Founder and Director of, and the forthcoming website Musée Achéménide Virtuel et Interactif. He is a member of the l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (Paris) and the Deutsche Archaelogische Institut (Berlin). His areas of research are the history and civilisation of the Achaemenid world and the transition to the Hellenistic world. Professor Briant was awarded a Honoris Causa docorate from the University of Chicago. His publications include: Antigone le Borgne (Les Débuts de sa Carrière et les Problèmes de l'Assemblée Macédonienne) (1973), Rois, Tributs et Paysans, Études sur les Formations Tributaires du Moyen-Orient Ancien (1982), 'Etat et Pasteurs au Moyen-Orient Ancien' in Production Pastorale et Société (1982), L'Asie Centrale et les Royaumes Proche-orientaux du Premier Millénaire (c. VIIIe-IVe s. av. n. è.) (1984), 'De la Grèce à l'Orient. Alexandre le Grand' in Alexandre le Grand. De la Grèce à l'Inde (2004), 'Darius, l'Empire et les Perses' in Découvertes (1992, 2001), Dans les Pas des Dix-Mille (ed) (1995), Histoire de l'Empire Perse. De Cyrus à Alexandre (1996), Leçon Inaugurale du Collège de France (2000), Bulletin d'Histoire Achéménide II, Collection Persika 1 (2001), Irrigation et Drainage dans l'Antiquité. Qanats et Canalisations Souterraines en Iran, en Égypte et en Grèce (ed.), Collection Persika 2 (2001), Darius dans l'Ombre d'Alexandre (2003), and Alexandre le Grand (2005).

Maria Brosius

Maria Brosius is Reader in Ancient History at the University of Newcastle. After obtaining her DPhil. from the University of Oxford she was awarded a Postdoctoral Fellowship of the British Academy, and then held a three-year lectureship at Queen's College, Oxford. She has just been awarded a two-year Leverhulme Major Research Fellowship for 2005-2007, part of which she will spend as a Visiting Scholar at Wolfson College, Oxford. Her publications include The Persians. An Introduction (2005); (ed.) Ancient Archives and Archival Traditions. Concepts of Record-Keeping in the Ancient World (2003); The Persian Empire from Cyrus II to Artaxerxes I (ed.)(2000), Studies in Persian History. Essays in Memory of Professor David M. Lewis with Amelie Kuhrt (eds.) (1999), Women in Achaemenid Persia (559-331 BC) (1996, 1998, 2001).

Annie Caubet

Annie Caubet, a field archaeologist, has excavated sites in Syria (Emar, Ugarit), Cyprus (Salamis and Kition-Larnaca), Iran (Susa), Kuwait, Pakistan etc. Her special field of interest is the production of luxury goods (faience, ivory, jewellery) in the eastern Mediterranean during the Bronze and Iron Age, their technology and the insight they provide on ancient society. As the Keeper of the collection of Near Eastern Antiquities in the Musée du Louvre, she curated the new galleries that were opened in 1993 and 1997, as well as the Sackler wing of Persian and Phoenician antiquities. The temporary exhibitions she has organised aimed at expressing a continuity from the civilisations of the ancient Orient to the present day Western world, and the relevance of these cultures to the understanding of our time, from the symbolic point of view (Vision du Futur in 2000) or from the point of view of techniques and materials which show the 'longue durée' of specialised crafts and technologies (Ivories, 2004 and Faiences, 2005). Her publications include: Ivoires, de l'Orient Ancien aux Temps Modernes with D Gaborit-Chopin and F Poplin (eds.) (2004) and Faiences de l'Antiquité. De l'Egypte à l'Iran with G Pierrat-Bonnefois (2005).

Michael R Cowell

Michael Cowell was formerly a scientist heading the Analytical Section in the Department of Scientific Research, The British Museum, and retired in 2004. Principal research areas include the chemical analysis of metalwork, ceramics and lithics to obtain technological information on manufacture and provenance relevant to the cultural framework of the artefacts. Expertise on a range of analytical techniques but especially x-ray fluorescence. Particular specialisation on coinage of all periods and regions (including ancient forgeries), metalwork from Egypt and the Middle East, medieval European and Korean ceramics and flint with over 100 papers on these and other topics.

John Curtis

John Curtis studied Western Asiatic archaeology at the University of London, earning his doctorate with a dissertation on late Assyrian metalwork. Appointed to the staff of the British Museum in 1971, Dr Curtis has served in the Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities (now known as the Department of the Ancient Near East) as Research Assistant 1971-1974, as Assistant Keeper 1974-1989, and as Keeper from 1989. He has supervised the creation of five new permanent galleries, a number of special exhibitions, and organised the move of the department to one of the finest historical rooms in the British Museum. During his tenure, many important objects have been acquired, two annual lectures have been endowed, and a number of international conferences have been organised. Dr Curtis has participated in excavations throughout the Middle East and - on behalf of the British Museum - has directed excavations at eight different sites in Iraq (including Nimrud). He was elected Fellow of the British Academy in 2003. A teacher and a frequent lecturer at museums, universities and archaeological societies worldwide, Dr Curtis is also the author or editor of some one hundred articles within his area of specialisation - ancient Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Iran, particularly during the Iron Age (about 1000-330 BC), in addition to over a dozen books which include: Fifty Years of Mesopotamian Discovery (ed.) (1982), Nush-i Jan III: The Small Finds (1984), Bronzeworking Centres of Western Asia c. 1000-539 BC (ed.) (1988), Excavations at Qasrij Cliff and Khirbet Qasrij (1989), Ancient Persia (1989, 2000), Early Mesopotamia and Iran: Contact and Conflict c. 3500-1600 B.C. (ed.) (1993), Art and Empire: Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum, with J.E. Reade (eds.) (1995), Later Mesopotamia and Iran: Tribes and Empires 1600-539 B.C. (ed.) (1995), Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period: Conquest and Imperialism 539-331 BC (ed.) (1997), Excavations at Khirbet Khatuniyeh, with Anthony Green (1997), Mesopotamia and Iran in the Parthian and Sasanian Periods: Rejection and Revival c. 238 BC- AD 642 (ed.) (2000) and Ancient Caucasian and Related Material in the British Museum, with Miroslaw Kruszynski (2002).

Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis

Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis received her MA in Near Eastern Archaeology and Iranian Studies from the University of Goettingen and her PhD on Parthian Sculpture from University College London. Since 1983 she has been Joint Editor of Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies and the Secretary of the British Institute of Persian Studies from 1995 to 2005. Dr Sarkhosh Curtis has been at the British Museum since 1995 where she was Curator of Parthian and Sasanian coins in the Department of Coins and Medals until her recent appointment as Curator of Islamic and Iranian coins. Dr Sarkhosh Curtis is also the curator of the Iran before Islam: Religion and Propaganda, AD 224-651 exhibition at the British Museum 30 June 2005 - 7 January 2006). Her research interests involve royal and religious iconography on coins, and she is currently also engaged in a joint project with the National Museum of Iran to catalogue the Sasanian coin collection in Tehran. Her publications include Persian Myths (1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2005), The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Persia (1997), Persian Love Poetry with Sheila Canby (2005), Catalogue of the Sasanian Coins of the National Museum of Iran, I. Coins of Ardashir I to Kavad I with E.Askari (forthcoming), The Formation of the Persian Empire, volume I with Sarah Stewart (eds) (forthcoming); From Persepolis to the Punjab: Nineteenth-century Discoveries with Elizabeth Errington (forthcoming).

Mehdi Daryaie

Mehdi Daryaie joined the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation in 1999 after receiving a Bachelor's degree in Archaeology from the University of Tehran. He began his career at the Department of Archaeology and participated in many archaeological digs in Iran (including Talesh, Bandian, Siraf, Izeh). Before doing his MA in Artefact Studies at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, he went to the National Museum of Iran where he became the curator of Ancient Iranian coins. Although he focused on the pre-Islamic era coinage, his main specialty is now Elymaean numismatics. His interest in the cultural material of this sub-kingdom of the Parthian Empire has resulted in a joint programme between the Departments of Coins, Seals and Medals of the National Museum of Iran and the British Museum in 2004. As a Co-director and Curator at the Department of Coins & Seals at the National Museum of Iran, he has organised many exhibitions inside and outside Iran and published several articles and catalogues such as 'Das Muenzewesen in der Prailsmischen und Islamischen Periode' in Persiens Antike Pracht, volume 2 (2004), and the Catalogue of the Selective Exhibition of the Golden and Silver Objects in the National Museum of Iran (in Persian) (2005). He is currently working on a joint research programme with the British Museum on the Sasanian coins. His research in the field of numismatics is a multi-disciplinary one, applying modern archaeometallurgical devices such as XRF and SEM. His MA thesis is focused on the chronology and an introduction into the metal composition of an Elymaean coin collection housed at the British Museum.

Elspeth R M Dusinberre

Elspeth R M Dusinberre is Assistant Professor in the Department of Classics at the University of Colorado at Boulder. She received her degrees from Harvard University (AB, 1991) and the University of Michigan (PhD, 1997). She is interested in cultural interactions in Anatolia, particularly in the ways in which the Achaemenid Empire affected local social structures and in the give-and-take between the Achaemenid and other cultures. Her first book, Aspects of Empire in Achaemenid Sardis (2003), examines such issues from the vantage of the Lydian capital. She has published articles in the American Journal of Archaeology, Ars Orientalis, Near Eastern Archaeology, Anatolian Studies, and elsewhere. She has worked at Sardis, Gordion, and Kerkenes Dag in Turkey, as well as at sites elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. At the University of Colorado, Dr Dusinberre teaches primarily Greek and Near Eastern archaeology. In addition to course websites, she has created an on-line exhibit of the University of Colorado's Greek vases, together with the graduate students in a seminar, at She has been awarded the University of Colorado Chancellor's Faculty Recognition Award and the Boulder Faculty Assembly's Excellence in Teaching Award.

Susanne Ebbinghaus

Susanne Ebbinghaus studied Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology at the Universities of Freiburg and Oxford, where she received a DPhil in Classical Archaeology in 1998. She currently works as a Research Associate in the Department of Ancient Art of the Harvard University Art Museums and as a Lecturer on Archaeology in the Harvard Classics Department. Her research is mainly focused on the cultural interaction between east and west in antiquity, especially during the so-called Orientalising period of Greek art and in the period of the Achaemenid Empire. Other interests include art and ideology under the Achaemenids, gift exchange, feasting and conspicuous consumption in the ancient world, and ancient metalwork. She has written a number of articles on rhyta in Anatolia, Thrace and Greece, on the iconography of early Greek art, and, most recently, on the Near Eastern finds from the Greek island of Samos. Her publications include: 'Between Greece and Persia: Rhyta in Thrace from the late 5th to the early 3rd centuries BC', in G R Tsetskhladze (ed.) Ancient Greeks West and East (1999), 'A Banquet at Xanthos: Seven Rhyta on the Northern Cella Frieze of the "Nereid" Monument', in G R Tsetskhladze, A J N W Prague and A M Snodgrass (eds.) in Periplous. Papers on Classical Art and Archaeololgy presented to Sir John Boardman (2000), 'New Evidence on the von Mercklin Class of Rhyta: A Black Gloss Rhyton from Agrileza' with J E Jones in Annual of the British School at Athens (2001), 'Begegnungen mit Aegypten und Vorderasien im Archaischen Heraheiligtum von Samos', in A Naso (ed.) Stranieri e non Cittadini nei Santuari del Mediterraneo Antico (forthcoming) and 'Protector of the City: The Art of Storage in Early Greece', in Journal of Hellenic Studies (forthcoming).

Lisbeth S Fried

Lisbeth S Fried received her PhD in Hebrew and Judaic Studies from New York University in 2000. Since then she has been a Visiting Scholar in the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies and the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Michigan. Her book, The Priest and the Great King: Temple Palace Relations in the Persian Empire (2004), discusses the relationship between the Achaemenid Emperor and temple priesthoods in Babylon, Egypt, Asia Minor, and Judah. Her articles on Achaemenid and biblical studies include: 'The 'Am Ha'aretz in Ezra 4:4 and Persian Imperial Administration' in O Lipschits and M Oeming, (eds.) Judah and Judaeans in the Achaemenid Period (2005), 'A Greek Religious Association in Second Temple Judah? A Comment on Nehemiah 10' in Transeuphratène (2005), 'A Silver Coin of Yohanan Hakkohen' in Transeuphratène (2003), 'A Governor of Byblos from Sippar'. NABU (2003), 'The Land Lay Desolate: Conquest and Restoration in the Ancient Near East', in O Lipschits and J Blenkinsopp, Judah and Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period (2003), 'Cyrus the Messiah? The Historical Background to Isaiah 45:1' in Harvard Theological Review 95 (2002), 'The Political Struggle of Fifth-Century Judah' in Transeuphratène (2002) and 'You Shall Appoint Judges: Ezra's Mission and the Rescript of Artaxerxes' in J W Watts (ed.) Persia and Torah: The Theory of Imperial Authorization of the Pentateuch (2001). She is presently writing a commentary on Ezra-Nehemiah for the Eerdmans Critical Commentary Series.

Richard Nelson Frye

Richard Nelson Frye received his AB from the University of Illinois 1939 with summa cum laude in History and Philosophy, an MA from Harvard University 1940 in History and a PhD from the same institution in 1946. He continued his studies at Princeton University in 1938 and 1941 for Arabic, Turkish and Persian and at the School of Oriental Studies, University London 1946-7 as well as for Sogdian, Avestan, etc. He received an honorary doctorate from the University of Tajikistan in 1991. He started his professional career as a Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard 1946-9, where he also taught as Assistant. Professor of History 1949-53, Associate Professor 1953-57 and Aga Khan Professor of Iranian Studies 1967-90. He was Visiting Professor at Frankfurt University 1958-9, Visiting Professor at Hamburg University 1968-9, Visiting Scholar at the Hermitage Museum 1966-7, Visiting Professor at the University of Tajikistan 1990-92. He served as Director of Asia Institute, Pahlavi University, Shiraz 1970-5. Professor Frye is the founder of: National Association of Armenian Studies and Research, Belmont, Mass (1959), Center for Middle East Studies, Harvard University (1949), Hagop Kevorkian Chair of Iranian Studies, Columbia University (1957), Aga Khan Chair of Iranian, Harvard (1956), Ozai Durrani Chair of Indo-Pakistan Studies, Harvard (1964), International Institute for Central Asian Studies, under UNESCO, Samarkand, Uzbekistan (1993). In addition to countless articles, he has published the following books: Notes on the Early Coinage of Transoxiana (1949), History of the Nation of the Archers (1952), The United States, Turkey & Iran, with L.V Thoma (1951), The Near East and the Great Powers (1953), Narshakhi, History of Bukhara (ed.)(1954), Iran (1956), Persia (1962), Bukhara, the Medieval Achievement (1965), The Histories of Nishapur (1965), Persia (1968), Excavations of Qasr-i Abu Nasr (1973), The Golden Age of Persia (1977), (ed.) vol.4, Cambridge History of Iran (1975), The Ancient History of Iran (1983) and The Heritage of Central Asia (1996).

Wolfgang Gambke

Wolfgang Gambke is an architect and Co-founder of the Persepolis3D project. He received a Diplom Ingenieur in Architecture from the Fachhochschule in Duesseldorf, Germany. As a student, his concentration was on construction and planning. Prior to completing his degree in 1986, he worked in the IT field with various operating systems and programming languages. He later specialized in CAD-construction and programming in 2D and 3D. Since 1989, he has been working in virtual architecture visualisation and teaching courses in building construction. In 2001, after years of experience in architecture with computers, he created Persepolis3D with Kourosh Afhami.

Mark B Garrison

Mark B Garrison is professor and chair of the Department of Art and Art History at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. His primary research interests are the glyptic arts of ancient Iran and Iraq in the early 1st millennium BC. He specializes in the glyptic preserved on two large archives from Persepolis, the Persepolis Fortification tablets and the Persepolis Treasury tablets. With Dr Margaret Cool Root, he is author of Seals on the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Volume I: Images of Heroic Encounter (2001). In addition to the documentary work represented in that publication, his research has focused upon social aspects of glyptic production in workshops in Persepolis, especially the issues surrounding the impact of individuals of high status and/or administrative rank on the development of glyptic style and iconography in the early Achaemenid period. His work has also addressed the emergence and development of royal ideology in glyptic at Persepolis, as well as the relationship of glyptic of the early Achaemenid period with earlier glyptic traditions in Elam and Mesopotamia.

Andrew R George

Andrew George was educated at the University of Birmingham, where he studied Assyriology with W G Lambert (BA Ancient Near Eastern Studies 1976, PhD 1985). For a while he ran a public house in Darlaston. In 1985 he was appointed Lecturer in Ancient Near Eastern Studies to teach Akkadian and Sumerian at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, where he is now Professor of Babylonian. Also an Honorary Visiting Professor at the university's Institute of Archaeology, he has been a scholar of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq (1978), a Visiting Professor at the University of Heidelberg (2000) and a Visiting Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (2004-5). In 1995 he founded the London Centre for the Ancient Near East. During the course of projects to reconstruct Babylonian literary and scholarly texts he has studied cuneiform tablets in many museums in the Middle East, Europe and America. His chief research focus is on Babylonian civilisation, especially literature, religion, mythology and intellectual achievement. Topics where archaeological data are combined with philological enquiry are of particular interest (cultic topography, architecture, lavatories). His principal publications are: Babylonian Topographical Texts (1992), House Most High: The Temples of Ancient Mesopotamia (1993), The Epic of Gilgamesh (Penguin 1999), The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts (2003). Since 1995 he has co-edited the academic journal IRAQ, as well as A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian (1999), Wisdom, Gods and Literature (2000), and Nineveh: Papers of the 49e RAI (2005). His translation of Gilgamesh for Penguin Classics won the 2000 Kuwait-British Fellowship Society prize for Middle Eastern Studies.

Hilary Gopnik

Hilary Gopnik completed her PhD in West Asian Archaeology at the University of Toronto in 2000. Her thesis presented a statistical analysis of the ceramics of Godin Tepe period II that demonstrated that the ceramics from Godin could be isolated into three phases, each with a distinct stylistic assemblage. These assemblages were then linked stylistically to the ceramic sequences from other Iron Age sites. It was further suggested that the changing cultural patterns at the site could be traced in the distribution of functionally specific pottery shapes. The publications resulting from this research are 'The Shape of Sherds: Function and Style at Godin II' in Iranica Antiqua (2005) and 'The Ceramics from Godin II in the Late 7th to Early 5th Centuries BC', in Continuity of Empire: Assyria, Media, Persia (2003). In addition to her work on Iron Age ceramics Dr Gopnik has taken a theoretical art historical approach to archaeological material, publishing an article on the impact of narrative styles in the Neo-Assyrian reliefs ('Death and Taxes in the Neo-Assyrian Reliefs', in Death and Taxes in the Ancient Near East (1992)) as well as co-writing an article on the architecture of Pasargadae with David Stronach to appear in the Encyclopaedia Iranica. The research conducted in writing the latter article led her to questions about the development of the columned hall and to wonder to what extent the form of these public buildings was dictated by elite protocols. The results of this inquiry will be presented at the conference in London. Dr Gopnik is currently working on a book to be published by the Royal Ontario Museum that will present the archaeological data from the site of Godin Tepe levels VI-II.

Farhad Hakimzadeh

Farhad Hakimzadeh is Chief Executive of the Iran Heritage Foundation, a UK registered charity that was established by him and a few like-minded Iranians in 1995 to promote the cultural heritage of Iran. The Foundation has increased its activities substantially in these ten years and is now the partner of choice for many of the major museums and universities in Europe and North America when it comes to the organisation and execution of project dealing with the history and culture of Iran. He received his BS from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1971) and his MBA from the Harvard Business School (1973).

Thomas Harrison

Thomas Harrison is Rathbone Professor of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology at the University of Liverpool. He took his undergraduate degree and PhD at Wadham College, Oxford (1987-95), then held a temporary teaching post at the University of St Andrews (1995-7) and a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship in the History Department of University College London (1997-2000), before returning to a lectureship in Ancient History at St Andrews (2000-2004). His research has focused on Greek history and historiography. Particular areas of interest have been Herodotus, Greek religious ideas, and the Greeks' representation of foreign peoples. His publications include Divinity and History. The Religion of Herodotus (2000), The Emptiness of Asia. Aeschylus' 'Persians' and the History of the Fifth Century (2000) and, as editor, Greeks and Barbarians (2002). He is currently writing a study of the modern historiography of Achaemenid Persia.

Shalom E Holtz

Shalom E Holtz received his AB degree summa cum laude in Near Eastern Languages and Civilisations from Harvard University. He is a doctoral candidate in Assyriology and Hebrew Bible in the department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilisations at the University of Pennsylvania, where he has been a William Penn and University Dissertation Fellow, and is currently completing a dissertation entitled 'Neo-Babylonian Legal Proceedings and Related Records: Structural, Procedural and Comparative Aspects'. His research interests include the survival of Mesopotamian culture in post-Biblical Judaism, particularly in the legal sphere. His article, 'To Go and Marry Any Man That You Please: A Study of the Formulaic Antecedents of the Rabbinic Writ of Divorce' in Journal of Near Eastern Studies (2001), is an example of this interest. More generally, he is also interested in ancient Near Eastern law and the comparative aspects of Assyriology.

Despina Ignatiadou

Despina Ignatiadou is currently Curator at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, Greece. In the past she served as Head of the Conservation Department of the same Museum. She studied archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and conservation of antiquities at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. She received her PhD, on 'Macedonian Glass Working of the 4th Century BC. The Colourless Glass', from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and has participated in excavations in several Greek sites and in the preparation and presentation of several permanent, special and travelling exhibitions for the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki and the Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Her publications include studies on the archaeology of Macedonia, the preparation of exhibitions, and the conservation of antiquities, but her main field of research is the history of pre-Roman glass.

Bruno Jacobs

Bruno Jacobs obtained his PhD in 1984 in Classical Archaeology at the University of Cologne. His thesis Griechische und Persische Elemente in der Kunst Kleinasiens zur Zeit des Achaemenidenherrschaft was published in 1987. In 1992 he completed his 'habilitation' in Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Basel. His thesis entitled Die Satrapienverwaltung im Perserreich zur Zeit Darius' III was published in 1994. He is now a Professor in Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Basel. His publications also include: 'Das Chvarnah - Zum Stand der Forschung' in Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (1987), 'Drei Beitraege zu Fragen der Ruestung und Bekleidung in Persien zur Achaemenidenzeit' in Iranica Antiqua (1994), 'Beobachtungen zu den Tuffit-Skulpturen vom Nemrud Dag' in Istanbuler Mitteilungen (1997), 'Eine Planaenderung an den Apadana-Treppen und ihre Konsequenzen fuer die Datierung der Planungs- und Bebauungsphasen von Persepolis' in Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan (1997), 'Achaemenidenherrschaft in der Kaukasus-Region und in Cis-Kaukasien' in Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan (2000), 'Kultbilder und Gottesvorstellung bei den Persern - Zu Herodot, Historiae 1, 131, und Clemens Alexandrinus, Protrepticus 5, 65, 3' in PIHANS (2001), 'Achaemenidische Kunst - Kunst im Achaemenidenreich: Zur Rolle der Achaemenidischen Grossplastik als Mittel der Herrscherlichen Selbstdarstellung und der Verbreitung Politischer Botschaften im Reich' in Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan (2002). His current research interests include political and religious history of Ancient Iran; art and archaeology of the Achaemenid period; Persia and the Mediterranean; history of land transport; sources on the history of the Parthian Empire and hellenistic Kommagene.

Anke Joisten-Prushke

Anke Joisten-Pruschke studied Protestant Theology, Iranian Philology/History and Egyptian Studies at the University of Mainz and Heidelberg where she was also the assistant of Professor Humbach for two years. In November 1987 she finished her studies in Protestant Theology with the ecclesiastical examination to become a vicar. From 1992 to 2001 she worked as a vicar in the Rheingau and Wiesbaden and was in charge of the documentation of Jewish life in Hessen at the synagogue of Erfelden. During this period she also pursued her interests in Aramaic Studies and she resumed her studies by working on her PhD in the Theology Department of the University of Goettingen on the 'Aramaic Papyri of Elephantine' under the supervision of Professor Becker. In addition she studied in the Institute for Iranian Studies at Goettingen with Professor Kreyenbroek, and started working on her second PhD on 'Aramaica in the Achaemenid Period'. Her publications include: 'Das Abrahamitische Forum' in: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft fuer Christlich-Juedische Zusammenarbeit in Wiesbaden (1998), ed. 'Die Geschichte der Juden in Biebesheim' in Erfelder Heft (1997), 'Gedenkwege', in 27.Januar - Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (1996), 'Pfingstmeditation Apg.2,1ff' in Ulrich Schwemer (ed.) Die Weisung vom Sinai und das Pfingstwunder - Betrachtungen zu Schawuot und Pfingsten (1996), 'Bildmeditation - Bundestafeln am Sinai' in Gottesdienst in Israels Gegenwart (1996) and 'Nach Auschwitz' in Gottesdienst in Israels Gegenwart (1994/5).

Albert De Jong

Albert de Jong studied Theology and Persian at the University of Utrecht and Old and Middle Iranian at the University of London. He received his PhD from the University of Utrecht in 1996 and has been in Leiden since 1997. He is currently lecturer in the study of religion at the Leiden Faculty of Theology. His main research interests are the history of Zoroastrianism (from the earliest texts to the present), Pahlavi literature, and the religious history of late antiquity. He has published widely in these fields, and is currently writing the 5th volume of the series A History of Zoroastrianism, covering the Sasanian Empire. His publications include Traditions of the Magi. Zoroastrianism in Greek and Latin Literature (1997), with H-G Nesselrath, B Baebler & M Forschner Dion von Prusa. Menschliche Gemeinschaft und Goettliche Ordnung: Die Borysthenes-Rede (2003), 'Purification in Absentia: On the Development of Zoroastrian Ritual Practice,' in J Assmann & G G Stroumsa (eds.) Transformations of the Inner Self in Religious Traditions (1997), 'A New Syrian Mithraic Tauroctony' in Bulletin of the Asia Institute (1997[2000]), 'Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Zoroastrianism: A Ritual and its Interpretations' in A Baumgarten (ed.) Sacrifice in Religious Experience (2002), 'Zoroastrian Self-Definition in Contact with other Faiths' in S Shaked & A Netzer (eds.), Irano-Judaica (2003) and 'Sub Specie Maiestatis: Reflections on Sasanian Court Rituals,' in M Stausberg (ed.) Zoroastrian Rituals in Context (2004).

Deniz Kaptan

Deniz Kaptan is an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Nevada at Reno. She received her PhD in Classical Archaeology at Ankara University in her native country Turkey in 1988. From 1991 to 1993 Dr Kaptan was a Deutsche Akademische Austausch Dienst Fellow in the Prehistory and Near Eastern Archaeology Department of Heidelberg University and in 1995 she was a Visiting Scholar of the International Institute at the University of Michigan. From 1995 until 2000 she was on the faculty of the Department of Archaeology and History of Art at Bilkent University in Turkey. The excavations at Arykanda, Phaselis and Hacimusalar Hoyuk-Elmali in south western Turkey are among the sites where she carried out her field work from 1985 until today. Dr Kaptan is especially interested in the archaeology of multicultural societies of the eastern Mediterranean world during the 1st millennium BC. Her book, The Daskyleion Bullae: Seal Images from the Western Achaemenid Empire (2003), is on the seal impressions excavated in Daskyleion, a major administrative centre of the Achaemenid Empire in western Anatolia.

Philip G Kreyenbroek

Philip Gerrit Kreyenbroek studied Arabic, Persian, Old and Middle Iranian, Sanskrit and History of Religions in the Universities of Amsterdam and Utrecht in the Netherlands, and later Zoroastrianism, Avestan, Middle Persian and Gujarati in the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He was Lecturer (later Senior Lecturer) in Persian and Iranian Studies in the University of Utrecht (1973-88), where he taught Persian Language and Literature, Zoroastrianism, Pashto, and Kurdish. He then took up the post of Lecturer in Modern Iranian Languages (later Reader in Iranian Languages and Religions) in SOAS, where he taught Pashto, Kurdish, Zoroastrianism, and Sufism. In 1996 he was appointed Professor of Iranian Studies in the Georg-August University in Goettingen, Germany. His main publications include Sraosha in the Zoroastrian Tradition (1985), Yezidism: its Background, Observances and Textual Tradition (1995), Living Zoroastrianism: Urban Parsis Speak about their Religious Lives. (2001), The Herbedestan and Nerangestan (1992, 1995, 2003), and many articles. His work mainly focuses on Zoroastrianism, Yezidism, Oral Traditions in Iranian Cultures, Kurdish and Pashto Literature. He is editor of the forthcoming work: History of Persian Literature: Companion Volume II: Persian Popular Literature; Literatures in Modern Iranian Languages other than Persian.

Amelie Kuhrt

Amelie Kuhrt, FBA is Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History at University College London. Her publications include: Achaemenid History with Helen Sancisi-Weerdenburg (eds.) (1984-91; 1994), Hellenism in the East; the Interaction of Greek and Non-Greek Civilisations From Syria to Central Asia After Alexander with Susan Sherwin-White (eds.) (1987); From Samarkhand to Sardis (1993), The Ancient Near East, c.3000-330 BC (1995), Greeks and Greece in Mesopotamian and Persian Perspectives (2002).

Judith Lerner

Judith Lerner is an independent art historian, specializing in the art history and archaeology of Iran and Central Asia, with an emphasis on the glyptic art of these regions during the Achaemenid, Sasanian and early post-Sasanian periods. Another research area centres on the interconnections between the Iranian world and China. She has degrees from Columbia University (MA) and Harvard University (PhD). Her publications include: Monks and Merchants: Silk Road Treasures from Northwest China, 4th to 7th Centuries, with A L Juliano (2001), 'The Miho Couch Revisited in the Light of Recent Discoveries' with A L Juliano in Orientations (2001), 'Some Central Asian Seals in the Rosen Collection' in M Alram and D Klimburg-Salter (eds.) Coins, Art, and Chronology. Essays in the History of the Indo-Iranian Borderlands (1999), 'Sasanian and Achaemenid Revivals in Qajar Art', in V Curtis, R Hillenbrand and M Rogers (eds.) The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Persia. (1998), 'Cultural Crossroads: Central Asian and Chinese Entertainers on the Miho Funerary Couch', with A L Juliano in Orientations (1997), 'Some Uses of Clay Bullae in Sasanian Iran: Bullae in the Rosen and Museum of Fine Arts Collections' , with P O Skjaervø in Sceaux d'Orient et Leur Employ - Res Orientales (1997), 'Horizontal-handled Mirrors: East and West', in Metropolitan Museum Journal (1996), 'Central Asians in Sixth-Century China: A Zoroastrian Funerary Rite' in Iranica Antiqua (1995), 'A Rock Relief of Fath 'Ali Shah in Shiraz', in Ars Orientalis, (1991[1992]), 'Some So-called Achaemenid Objects from Pazyryk', in Source (1991), 'Three Achaemenid Fakes' in Expedition (1980); Christian Seals of the Sasanian Period (1977) and 'A Painted Relief from Persepolis', in Archaeology (1973).

Yannick Lintz

Yannick Lintz graduated in Latin and Greek Literature from the University of Strasbourg as well as the Institut National du Patrimonie (France) in Greek and Roman period as her major speciality. She did her MA studies on 'Images of Persia through Attic orators' texts of the 4th century BC' and is now preparing a PhD about the Achaemenids and the images of the great King in Asia Minor, under the direction of Pierre Briant. Her first position as a curator was in the Art and History Museum of Geneva, where she was in charge of Greek and Roman antiquities. In 1992, she was appointed as the Director of the Fine Arts Museum in Agen (France). She is now curator in the Musée du Louvre where she is in charge of an audit of the loans of antiquities in French museums and abroad. She is also teaching at Sorbonne University and vice-chairman of the French committee of ICOM (International Council of Museums). Her current field of interest is the Achaemenid era. Her other subject of research deals with the history of collections and museums in Europe from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Her publications include: Les Marbres Blancs dans l´Antiquité (1991), Les Collections du Musée d´Agen (2000) and Des Cités Mésopotamiennes à la Jérusalem des Croisés, la Donation Camille Aboussouan (2001).

Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones

Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones gained his PhD in Ancient History at the University of Wales, Cardiff. He lectures in Classics at Edinburgh University and specializes in aspects of socio-cultural and gender history in ancient Greece and the Near East as well as in the reception of antiquity in popular culture, especially film. His publications include: Aphrodite's Tortoise: The Veiled Woman of Ancient Greece (2003), Women's Dress in the Ancient Greek World, (ed.) (2002), The Clothed Body in the Ancient World, with M Harlow (eds.) (2005), Dress in Ancient Greece and Rome: A Dictionary, (ed.) (forthcoming), Tales of the Orient: The Persica of Ctesias of Cnidos (forthcoming), 'Sexy Athena: The Dress and Erotic Representation of a Virgin War Goddess' in S Deacy and A Villing (eds.) Athena in the Classical World (2001), 'A Woman's View? Dress, Eroticism, and the Ideal Female Body in Athenian art' in L Llewellyn-Jones (ed.) Women's Dress in the Ancient Greek World (2002), 'Eunuchs and the Harem in Achaemenid Persia' in S Tougher (ed.) Eunuchs In Antiquity And Beyond (2002), 'The Queen of Sheba in Popular Culture, 1850-2000' in St J Simpson (ed.) The Queen of Sheba: Treasures of Ancient Yemen (2002), 'Celluloid Cleopatras or Did the Greeks ever get to Egypt?' in D Ogden (ed.) The Hellenistic World: New Perspectives (2002), 'Female Social Segregation in Ancient Greece' in G Davies (ed.) Women in Classical Antiquity: New Perspectives (2005), 'House and Veil in Ancient Greece' in N Fisher, R Westgate & J Whitley (eds.) Building Communities: House, Settlement and Society in the Aegean and Beyond (2005), 'Gesture and the Male Performance of Women in Athenian Tragedy' in D L Cairns (ed.) Body Language in Greece and Rome (2005), 'Herakles Re-Dressed' in L Rawlings (ed.) Herakles/Hercules in Antiquity (2005) and 'Veiling the Spartan Woman' in E Millander (ed.) Women in Ancient Sparta: New Perspectives (forthcoming),

Parvin Loloi

Parvin Loloi was educated at Melli University (Tehran) and at the University of Wales (Swansea), where she wrote her PhD thesis on the English translations of Hafiz and their influence on English poetry. She is a freelance scholar and writer. Her research interests include various aspects of translation studies, and the way in which Persian literature and culture have influenced (and are reflected in) English literature. She has regularly contributed papers to the conferences organised every year by the University of Salzburg, the results of which have been published in the series 'Studies in English and Comparative Literature'. Her publications include a critical and annotated edition (in two volumes) of two 17th century plays Sir John Denham, The Sophy (Vol. 1, 1998), Robert Baron, Mirza. A Tragedy (Vol. 2, 1998), Hafiz, Master of Persian Poetry; A critical Bibliography; English Translations since the Eighteenth Century (2004), 'Byron In Persian Costume' in The Swansea Review (1988), 'An Essay on The Thousand and One Nights' in Encyclopedia of the Novel (1990), 'A Dramatic Version from the Apocrypha: Kyng Daryus and the Book of Esdras', in Elizabethan Literature and Transformation: Studies in English and Comparative Literature (1999),'Tennyson, Fitzgerald and Cowell: A Private Relation with Public Consequences' in Private and Public Voices in Victorian Poetry: Studies in English and Comparative Literature (2000).

John MacGinnis

After studying Assyriology and Near Eastern Archaeology at Trinity College, Cambridge, and engaging in fieldwork in Iraq and Syria, John MacGinnis returned to Cambridge to do a PhD specialising in Late Babylonian cuneiform texts. The core of this research was examining texts from Sippar, specifically the archives of its Ebabbara, the temple of the Sun God. This was followed by a Research Fellowship at Wolfson College, Oxford, during which he extended his research into the administration of the Ebabbara. He then returned to Cambridge as a Fellow of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, focusing more on the archaeological side, specifically directing excavations in the lower town of the Ziyaret Tepe (southeast Turkey) - very likely the site of a Neo-Assyrian provincial capital. He has also worked as a field archaeologist at Nineveh, Tell Brak, Amarna and numerous other sites in the Middle East and South Asia. His primary interests are the study of 1st millennium BC Mesopotamia in all its aspects. His publications reflect this, with preliminary reports to the Ziyaret excavations on the one hand, and numerous studies on various aspects of the cuneiform archives on the other. His publications include Letter Orders from Sippar and the Administration of the Ebabbara in the Late Babylonian Period (1995), 'Archaeological Excavations at Ziyaret Tepe, 2000 and 2001' with T Matney, M Roaf and H MacDonald in Anatolica (2002), 'The Use of Writing Boards in the Neo-Babylonian Administration at Sippar in Iraq (2002), 'Working in Elam' in C Wunsch (ed.) Mining the Archives - Festschrift Christopher Walker (2003), 'A Corvée Gang from the Time of Cyrus in Zeitschrift fuer Assyriologie (2003), 'Archaeological Investigations at Ziyaret Tepe, 2002' with T Matney et al. in Anatolica (2004), 'Servants of the Sun God: Numbering the Dependents of the Neo-Babylonian Ebabbara' in Baghdader Mitteilungen (2004).

Peter Magee

Peter Magee is presently Assistant Professor at Bryn Mawr College. He earned his PhD from the University of Sydney (Australia) in 1996 and has excavated in Greece, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan. He has published on the Iron Age in eastern Arabia, southeastern Iran and Pakistan. His publications include 'Sourcing Iron Age Softstone Artefacts in Southeastern Arabia: Results from a Pilot Program of Analysis Using Inductively Coupled Plasma' with Barber, Sobur and Jasim in Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy (forthcoming), 'The Achaemenid Empire in South Asia and Recent Excavations at Akra, (NWFP, Pakistan)' with Cameron Petrie, Robert Knox and F Khan in American Journal of Archaeology (forthcoming), 'Columned Halls, Bridge-spouted Vessels, C14 Dates and the Chronology of the East Arabian Iron Age: A Response to Some Recent Comments by Muscarella' in Ancient West and East (forthcoming), 'The Chronology and Environmental Background of Iron Age Settlement in Southeastern Iran and the Question of the Origin of the Qanat Irrigation System' in Iranica Antiqua (2005), 'Investigating Cross-Gulf Trade in the Iron Age III Period: Chronological and Compositional Data on Burnished Maroon Slipped Ware (BMSW) in Southeastern Arabia and Iran' in Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy (2005), The Iron Age Settlement at Tepe Yahya, Southeastern Iran (2004), 'The Impact of Southeast Arabian Intra-regional Trade on Settlement Location and Organization During the Iron Age II Period' in Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy (2004), 'Authority, Legitimisation and Columned Halls in the Southeast Arabian Iron Age' in Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates (2003), 'New Chronometric Data Defining the Iron Age II in Southeastern Arabia' in Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies (2003).

Sabrina Maras

Sabrina Sonia Maras received her MA in 2002 from the department of Near Eastern Studies, University of California at Berkeley on Ancient Near Eastern Art and Archaeology with emphasis on Bronze Age Anatolia; Iron Age Assyria and Iran and her CPhil in 2004 from the department of Near Eastern Studies, University of California at Berkeley on Iron-age Iran, Assyria and Babylonia. Her current research interests are related to Iron-Age pre-Achaemenid and Achaemenid Iran and she is currently writing her doctoral dissertation under the direction of Professor David Stronach, which focuses on the early Persian Empire. It is titled 'Religious Transformation and the Construction of Royal Identity in Ancient Persia, c. 550-486 BC'. Her publications include 'Notes on Seals and Seal Use in Iron Age Iran' in Iranica Antiqua (2005).

Bernadette McCall

Bernadette McCall completed her BA with honours in Archaeology at the University of Sydney. Her BA (Honours) thesis focused on the analysis of organic residues left on Roman period trade and domestic ceramic vessels from Cyprus using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. She has been involved with field research in Iran, Cyprus, the UAE and undertaken survey work in Yemen, most recently conducting an archaeological survey of the Mamasani district of western Fars province in Iran as part of the collaborative project between the Iranian Centre of Archaeological Research and the University of Sydney. Ms McCall is currently completing her PhD thesis at the University of Sydney, focusing on the prehistoric and historic period settlement systems in the Mamasani region of Fars, Iran and co-authoring a chapter on the Mamasani survey with her Iranian colleagues.

Sam Moorhead

Sam Moorhead is the Curator of Information at the British Museum. He taught archaeology and ancient history for many years before joining the Museum as Staff Lecturer for Archaeology. He was a senior member of the excavations at Tell Jezreel in the 1990s where there was Persian period material. He has served on various Near Eastern archaeology committees and is currently Senior Keeper at the Palestine Exploration Fund. He is responsible for the interpretation for the exhibition Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia at the British Museum.

Cindy Nimchuk

Cindy Nimchuk is currently engaged in examination of the conjunction of image and inscription in the monuments of Darius the Great, illustrating the degree to which Darius adapted previously existing literary and artistic components into a new and uniquely Achaemenid cultural statement, with specific messages for each of his societal audiences. In this context, she has presented and published research on the Croeseid and Archer coinages, focusing primarily on the functions of the coinages, based on their imagery and weight standards. Her current field of inquiry explores a holistic understanding of the Apadana foundation deposits and their relationship to the Apadana, to Persepolis, and to the Empire itself. Dr Nimchuk is an Assistant Professor (History Program) at the University of Illinois at Springfield. Before joining the UIS faculty, she held a 3-year teaching and research post-doctoral fellowship at Stanford University. She received her doctorate in Assyriology through the Ancient Studies Collaborative Program in the Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilisations at the University of Toronto. Her MA and BA in Classics were from, respectively, the University of Ottawa (Classical Studies) and the University of Calgary (Ancient History, Latin). Her publications include 'The Persepolis Apadana Foundation Deposits' in Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies (Festschrift in Honour of T Cuyler Young, Jr.) (forthcoming), 'The 'Archers' of Darius: Coinage or Tokens of Royal Esteem?' in Ars Orientalis (2002), 'The Lion-and-Bull Coinage of Croesus' in The Journal of the Classical and Medieval Numismatic Society of Canada (2000).

Cameron Petrie

Cameron Petrie is currently the Katherine and Leonard Woolley Junior Research Fellow at Somerville College, University of Oxford, and is involved with a collaborative research project focusing on the Mamasani region in Fars province, Iran. In September 2005, he will be taking up a Post Doctoral Research Fellowship in South Asian Archaeology at the University of Cambridge. He completed his BA and PhD degrees at the University of Sydney, focusing on the Hellenistic period in Babylonia and the expansion of Islam into South Asia respectively. His research concentrates on analysing the impact of state formation and expansion on regional areas, and incorporates scientific approaches to analyse ceramic material. He is currently completing a co-authored study on the collaborative ICAR-University of Sydney excavations at the site of Tol-e Spid in the Mamasani region of Fars, and carrying out programmes of ceramic analysis of ceramic material from Iran and Pakistan. Dr Petrie's publications include 'Ceramic Production and Distribution in the Late 1st and Early 2nd Millennia AD: Akra, Bannu Basin, NWFP Pakistan' in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on South Asian Archaeology, European Association of South Asian Archaeologists, Bonn, 7-11 July 2003, U. Franke-Vogt (ed.) (2005), 'The Achaemenid Empire in South Asia and Recent Excavations at Akra in Northwest Pakistan', with Peter Magee, Robert Knox & F Khan in American Journal of Archaeology (2005), 'Kaftari and Kaftari-related Ceramics in Southwest Iran and the Persian Gulf', with Mojgan Seyedin and Alireza Askari Chaverdi, in Kamyar Abdi (ed.) Essays on the Archaeology and History of the Persian Gulf Littoral (2005), 'Seleucid Uruk: An Analysis of Ceramic Distribution' in Iraq (2002) and 'Late Pre-Islamic Ceramics from the Tomb at Sharm, Fujairah, UAE' in Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy (2000).

Daniel Thomas Potts

Daniel Thomas Potts is Edwin Cuthbert Hall Professor of Middle Eastern Archaeology and Honorary Curator of the Nicholson Museum at the University of Sydney. He studied at Harvard (BA 1975, PhD 1980) and the Freie Universitaet Berlin (1975-76) and taught previously in Berlin (1981-1986) and Copenhagen (1980-1981, 1986-1991). He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities and the Society of Antiquaries. He was a member of the Harvard expedition to Tepe Yahya (1973, 1975), and wrote both his undergraduate and doctoral theses on Tepe Yahya in Kerman Province. He has also excavated in Turkey and the United Arab Emirates. Since 2002 he has been co-directing a collaborative project with the Iranian Centre of Archaeological Research in the Mamasani district of western Fars province, undertaking excavations at Tol-e Spid and Tol-e Nurabad. He is the author of many books and articles on Iranian, Arabian and Mesopotamian archaeology. His work The Archaeology of Elam (1999) has been translated into Persian and will be published soon in Tehran. He is a member of the editorial board of Iranica Antiqua, and is founder-editor of Arabian Archaeology & Epigraphy.

Shahrokh Razmjou

Shahrokh Razmjou received his BA and MA in Archaeology in Tehran and is currently a PhD student in the University of London. He established the Tablets Hall (1999) and the Centre of Achaemenid Studies (2001) at the National Museum of Iran and is currently in the process of establishing the International Institute of Elamite Studies. He has directed excavations in the Niasar caves in Kashan. His main areas of research are the architecture, art and archaeology of the Persian Empire, Persepolis, and Elamite cuneiform texts. His publications include 'In Search of the Lost Median Art' in Iranica Antiqua (2005), 'Herzfeld and the Study of Graffitti at Persepolis' in Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies 1900-1950, A Gunter & S Hauser (eds.) (2005), 'Lan Ceremony and other Ritual Ceremonies in the Achaemenid Period' in Iran (2004), 'Glasierte Ziegel der Achaeemenidischen Periode' with M S Tite, A J Shortland, M Jung & A Hauptman in T Stoellner, R Slotta & R Vatandoust (eds.) Persien's Antike Pracht (2004), 'Project Report of the Persepolis Fortification Tablets in ARTA (Achaemenid Newsletter) (2004), 'A Bronze Bracelet with Urartian Inscription from Tul, Gilan', in M R Khalatbari (ed.) Archaeological Excavations in Ancient Sites of Talesh, Tul in Gilan (2004), 'Unidentified Gods in the Achaemenid Calendar in Nameye Iran-e Bastan (in Persian) (2004), 'Assessing the Damage: Notes on the Life and Demise of the Statue of Darius from Susa' in Ars Orientalis (2003), 'Traces of Paint on the Statue of Darius' in (2003), 'Iran, die Festung der Urkunden', in Der Turmbau zu Babel (2003), 'Avestan Inscriptions in the Tomb of Cyrus the Great' (in Persian) in Soroush-e Pir-e Moghan (2002), 'Injuries on Statue: An Analytical Survey of Damages on the Statue of Darius from Susa' in Archaeology and History (2002), 'Les Trace Deesse de Spenta-Armaiti en Persepolis' in Studia Iranica (2001) and 'Newly Found Inscriptions at Persepolis' in Archaeology and History (2000).

Michael Roaf

Michael Roaf is Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology at the Institut für Vorderasiatische Archaeologie of Munich University since 1995. Previously he was Director of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq. His research interests cover the archaeology and art history of the ancient Near East, particularly of Mesopotamia and Iran. After taking a first class degree in mathematics from the University of Oxford, he studied the Archaeology of Western Asia at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London and then returned to Oxford to write his doctoral thesis on the Sculptures and Sculptors at Persepolis. This was subsequently published as volume 21 of Iran - The Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies (1983). A translation into Persian was published in 1995. Dr Roaf has excavated extensively in the Near East, in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, and Bahrain. He was Assistant Director of the excavations at the Median site of Tepe Nush-i Jan and has co-authored with David Stronach the final report on the monumental architecture at the site Nush-i Jan I. The Major Buildings of the Median Settlement (forthcoming). His publications also include the Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East (1990) which has been translated into several languages. In 2001 with Giovanni Lanfranchi and Robert Rollinger he organised a conference on the Medes, the proceedings of which was published in 2003 under the title Continuity of Empire (?): Assyria, Media, Persia. This is the most up-to-date and authoritative account of the role of the Medes in the ancient Near East.

Nicolas Sekunda

Nicholas Victor Secunda studied Ancient History and Archaeology both at undergraduate and doctoral level at Manchester University. He has worked on research projects at Monash University Melbourne, the Australian National University Canberra, and The Lexicon of Greek Personal Names in Oxford. He taught at Manchester University and now works at the Institute of Archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland, where he teaches a special subject course on 'Achaemenid Gift-Giving'. His research interests include the history and archaeology of the Mediterranean world, especially in the Greek world of the late Classical and Hellenistic periods, and especially in warfare. His research interests also include the Iranian world, especially during the Achaemenid period. He has worked on excavations at Haftavan Tepe in Iranian Azerbaijan, and is currently working on the materials from the Achaemenid and Sasanian levels (Periods II and I) for publication. On Persian themes, his publications include The Persian Army 560-330 BC with Simon Chew (1992) and Marathon 490 BC The First Persian Invasion of Greece (2002), 'Achaemenid Colonization in Lydia' in Revue des Études Anciennes (1985), 'Some Notes on the Life of Datames' in Iran (1988), 'Achaemenid Military Terminology' in Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran (1988), 'Persian Settlement in Hellespontine Phrygia' in A Kuhrt & H Sancisi-Weerdenburg (eds.), Achaemenid History III: Method and Theory. Proceedings of the Fifth Achaemenid History Workshop (1988),'The Persians' in General Sir John Hackett (ed.) Warfare in the Ancient World (1989), 'Achaemenid Settlement in Caria, Lycia and Greater Phrygia' in H Sancisi-Weerdenburg & A Kuhrt (eds.) Achaemenid History VI: Asia Minor and Egypt (1991), 'Ouakrianos' in Iranica Antiqua (1997), 'Itabelis and the Satrapy of Mysia' in American Journal of Ancient History (1989) and 'Arianos (Polyb. 8.16-20): an Iranian or Cretan Mercenary at Sardeis in 214 BC?' in Ancient Iran and its Neighbours, Electrum (forthcoming).

Mojgan Seyedin

Mojgan Seyedin completed her BA and MA degrees in Archaeology at the Faculty of Literature and Humanities Sciences, University of Tehran in 1992 and 1999 respectively. Her MA thesis focused on Urartian burial practices in northwest Iran, Turkey and Armenia, and she continues her research on the burial practices of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age of these regions. Ms. Seyedin is currently responsible for international relations for the Iranian Centre for Archaeological Research in Tehran.

St John Simpson

St John Simpson is a curator in the British Museum, where he is responsible for the Iran, Arabia and 'late period' collections in the department of the Ancient Near East. He has travelled and excavated extensively throughout the Middle East and Central Asia, and most recently was Co-director of the British Museum-sponsored excavations at Merv (Turkmenistan). He specialises in Sasanian material culture, and has a BA (Hons) from the Institute of Archaeology, London and a DPhil from the University of Oxford. He has published over thirty single-author papers on the archaeology of the Near East and Central Asia. Publications include 'Rediscovering Past Splendours from Iran: 19th-century Plaster Casts of Sculptures from Persepolis' in British Museum Magazine (2000), Queen of Sheba: Treasures from Ancient Yemen (2002), 'From Persepolis to Babylon and Nineveh: The Rediscovery of the Ancient Near East' in Enlightenment. Discovering the World in the Eighteenth Century, K Sloan (ed.) (2003), 'From Mesopotamia to Merv: Reconstructing Patterns of Consumption in Sasanian Households' in Culture through Objects: Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honour of P R S Moorey, T Potts, M Roaf & D Stein (eds.) (2003), 'Glass and Small Finds from Sasanian Contexts at the Ancient City-site of Merv' in Central Asia from the Achaemenids to the Timurids … Materials of an International Scientific Conference Dedicated to the Centenary of Aleksandr Markovich Belenitsky, St Petersburg November 2-5 2004, V P Nikonorov (ed.) (2004), 'Making their Mark: Foreign Travellers at Persepolis', (2005), 'The Royal Table' in Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia, J Curtis & N Tallis (eds.) (2005), 'Pottering around Persepolis: observations on early European visitors to the site', Persia and the Greeks: Reactions and Receptions, C Tuplin & L Llewellyn-Jones (eds.) (forthcoming).

Abolala Soudavar

Abolala Soudavar completed his university education at the Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (1963-67), Stanford University (1967-68) and the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Pratiques, Paris (1980-81). As a businessman he was involved in Iran from 1969 to 1982, when he moved to the USA and established Mirak Inc. He was Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Tehran University from 1970 to 1977. He is/was a member of the Visiting Committee for Islamic Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art - New York (since 1983), of the Board of Trustees - Accession Committee - Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (1978 to 1994), Visiting Committee - Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Chicago (1995-7), Visiting Committee - Arthur M Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC (since 1995). His publications include Art of the Persian Courts (1992), The Aura of Kings: Legitimacy and Devine Sanction in Iranian Kingship (2003), 'The Saga of Abu-Sa`id Bahador Khan, The Abu-sa'idname', in At the Court of the Il-Khan's, 1290-1340, J Raby & T Fitzherbert (eds.) (1996), 'The Shahname and Zafarname of Mostowfi', in Iranshenasi (1996), 'Two Points of Mongol History' in Iranshenasi (1996), 'Between the Safavids and the Mughals; Art and Artists in Transition' in Iran ( 1999), 'The Concepts of 'Al-aqdamo asahh' and 'Yaqin-e sabeq', and the Problem of Semi-fakes' in Studia Iranica (1999), 'Forgeries' in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2001), 'The Age of Muhammadi' in Muqarnas (2000), 'The Han-Lin Academy and the Persian Royal Library' in the Festschrift Volume for Prof. John Woods (forthcoming), 'Achaemenid Bureaucratic Practices and Safavid Falsification of History' in SIE 2003 Proceedings (forthcoming), 'The Significance of Av. cithra, OPers. ciça, MPers cihr, and NPers. cehr, for the Iranian Cosmogony of Light' in Iranica Antiqua (forthcoming), 'The Mongol Legacy of Persian Farmans', in the Legacy of Genghis Khan Symposium Proceedings (forthcoming).

Mohammad Hassan Talebian

Mohammad Hassan Talebian received his MA in Architecture from the Faculty of fine Arts of Tehran University in 1994. His thesis was titled 'The Study and Design of the Cultural-Religious Complex of Mahziar Ahwaz' and is currently a PhD candidate at Tehran University where he is completing his dissertation on 'Authenticity and Integrity in Dur-Untas'. He has held various teaching positions since 1996 at the Soreh University (Tehran), Azad University (Dezful) and the Higher Education Center of ICHTO. Among many other projects Mr Talebian has been responsible for the preparation of the 'Pasargadae Dossier, for World Heritage Nomination' and the 'Bam Cultural Landscape Dossier, for World Heritage Nomination', and supervisor of its Management Plan for both projects. He is a member of strategic committee & technical committee of Bam and the strategic committee of research bases of the Iranian Cultural Heritage & Tourism Organisation. He is the coordinator of the Chogha Zanbil & Haft-tape projects (Khuzestan) as well as founder and current Director of the Parsa-Pasargadae Research Foundation. His publications include: 'Management Plan and Researches in the Chogha Zanbil Project' in (2000), 'A New Glance at Architectural Space (Perspective); Case Study: Yazd Historical Mosque of Amir Chakhmagh' (2000), 'Mud-Brick Conservation Architectural Concept in Dur-Untash' (2000), 'Morality and Architecture; Case Study: Dur-Untash' (2000), 'Methods and Experiences on Conservations and Restorations in Dur-Untash (2001), 'Place and Architecture in Dur-Untash' (2001), 'Conservation/Restoration experiences at Dur-Untash from Early Excavations Onwards' (2001) and 'On the Authenticity of the Chogha Zanbil Mud-brick WHS' (2003).

Nigel Tallis

Nigel Tallis studied Near Eastern archaeology at the University of Birmingham and has since pursued research interests in both military and medical history. He has published widely on these topics, most recently in Warfare in the Ancient World (forthcoming). Currently Special Assistant in the Department of the Ancient Near East at the British Museum he is co-curator of the exhibition, 'Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia'.

Christopher Tuplin

Christopher Tuplin (MA, DPhil) teaches ancient history and classical languages in the School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology at the University of Liverpool. Educated at Oxford (Corpus Christi and Wolfson Colleges), he started his academic career as a student of Greek history and historiography (in particular the Hellenica of Xenophon), but became increasingly involved in Achaemenid studies during the 1980s, not least through regular participation in the ground-breaking Groningen-based Achaemenid History Workshop. His publications include The Failings of Empire: A Reading of Xenophon Hellenica 2.3.11-7.5.27 (1993), Achaemenid Studies (1996), numerous papers on classical Greek history, Xenophon and the Achaemenid world (including in the last category studies of administration, garrisons, royal nomadism and the Behistun inscription as well as of the historian Ctesias and various aspects of Xenophon's presentation of the Persian Empire), and three conference volumes: Pontus and the Outside World (2004), The World of Xenophon (2004) and with T E Rihll Science and Mathematics in Ancient Greek Culture (2002). His current major projects are a commentary on Xenophon's Anabasis, a history of the Achaemenid Empire, and with Lloyd Llewellyn Jones the editing of two volumes of papers arising from a conference on 'Persia and the Greeks' held in Rennes in 2004.

Sheda Vasseghi

Sheda Vasseghi handles public relations for the Persepolis3D project. As an adjunct professor, she taught at Germanna Community College in Virginia. She brings to the team her knowledge and experience in public relations and human resources management, as well as her legal background in US intellectual property law. Ms Vasseghi received a BA in Interdisciplinary Studies (emphasis Biology) from the University of Missouri in 1989, and a MBA from Strayer University in 1998. Her MBA thesis was entitled The Virtual Organizational-Management Structure is Not Suitable for the Legal Industry. She is currently pursuing a Masters in Ancient History (emphasis ancient Persia) at the American Military University. She plans to focus her writings and research on the Achaemenid period.

Melanie Wasmuth

Melanie Wasmuth is a PhD student at the Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Munich under the supervision of Professor Michael Roaf. She has received her MA degree in 2002 from Vienna University in Egyptology and Ancient Near Eastern studies, with a thesis on 'Innovations in the Architecture of the Private Tombs from the 18th Dynasty in Thebes' supervised by Professor Helmut Satzinger from the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien. Since 2003 she has been working on the Egyptian influence in Achaemenid art as a doctoral thesis. During the period of her studies, she has worked in several museums and has participated in archaeological missions in Germany, Egypt, Syria and Turkey.

Matthew Waters

Matthew Waters received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania. He has taught at Penn and the University of Delaware, and he is currently Associate Professor of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire. He teaches a variety of ancient history and literature courses and also Greek and Latin. Professor Waters' research interests include works on ancient Assyria and Elam in the mid-1st millennium BC as well as the Achaemenid Empire and Greek historiography. His publications include A Survey of Neo-Elamite History (2000) and several articles, among them 'Cyrus and the Achaemenids' in Iran (2004) and 'A Letter from Ashurbanipal to the Elders of Elam' in Journal of Cuneiform Studies (2002). He has recently been awarded a research fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies for 2005-2006.

Wu Xin

Wu Xin received her PhD in ancient Near Eastern Art from the department of Art History at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Titled 'Central Asia during the Achaemenid Persian Era', her doctoral dissertation explores the political and cultural interactions between the Persians, the Central Asians and the steppe (semi)nomads. Dr Wu was trained in Chinese archaeology at the department of Archaeology at Peking University in Beijing, China. As a master's student she focused on Central Asian Buddhist art. Her research interests lie in the cultural interactions across the extensive geographic area between western China and the Eastern Mediterranean world. Further, she specialises in the material culture of Iran and Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Dr Wu has done extensive field work in China, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Russia. At the University of Pennsylvania she has taught and co-taught undergraduate courses on the ancient civilisations of the Old World and on empires and history. Her paper on the 'Persian and Central Asian Elements in the Social Landscape of the Early Nomads in Pazyryk, Southern Siberia' will be shortly published in the proceedings of the Second Eurasian Archaeology Conference on Social Landscape and Social Orders.

Sima Yadollahi

Sima Yadollahi has been a doctoral student in the department of Archaeology at Tehran University since 2002, where she is completing her doctoral dissertation on 'An investigation on the extra subsistence Archaeological records in relation to the formation of Cognitive Systems in the Bakun. A period in Fars province (Iran)'. She is currently also a staff member of the Department of Archaeology of Tehran University and the expert of cultural-historical properties in the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation. She received her BA degree in Archaeology from Tehran University and her MA degree in Prehistoric Archaeology from Tarbiat Modares University. Her current research interests include prehistoric archaeology and cultural heritage archaeological reconnaissance and scientific excavation in Neolithic sites reconstructions of social structures and cognitive systems based on architectural monuments and archaeological records. Her publications include: 'The Motif of Gilgamesh on Bronzes of Luristan(1)' in Museums (2003), 'The Motif of Gilgamesh on Bronzes of Luristan(2)' in Museums (2003), 'An Investigation and Analitical Comparison between the Architectural Monuments of Gunor Tepe and Nush-I Jan (Iran)' in The Second Symposium of Iranian Young Archaeologists, Tehran University (2004), 'Analitical Study of Architectural Monuments and Data in Southern Turkmenia and Western Iran' in Toronto Studies in Central and Inner Asia, University of Toronto Asian Institute (2004), 'Social Archaeology' in Archaeognosy (2004), and with K Niknami 'The Crisis of the Archaeological Museums of Iran' in Museums (2004).

Ehsan Yaghmaee

EhsanYaghmaee is an Iranian archaeologist who is now retired from the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation (Sazman-e Miras-e Farhangi) but is still continuing to excavate. Amongst the sites he has excavated are Bukkan in Kurdistan, Tappeh Hissar, and the Achaemenid palaces near Borazjan which are the subject of the present paper.

Abbas Yalvaee

Abbas Yalvaee is a PhD candidate in the Archaeology Department of Tehran University. He is interested in pre-history. His publications include 'The Survey and Recognition of the Three Epipaleolithic Shelters of Aleshtar of Luristan', with S Yadollahi and J Adeli in ASAR (2004).